Risk Definitions – Quantified Funds

Risk Definitions

Published March 19, 2021

Principal Investment Risks

An investment in the Fund entails risks. The Fund could lose money, or its performance could trail that of other investment alternatives. Neither the Subadviser nor the Adviser can guarantee that the Fund will achieve its objective. In addition, the Fund presents some risks not traditionally associated with other fixed income mutual funds. It is important that investors closely review and understand these risks before making an investment in the Fund. Turbulence in financial markets and reduced liquidity in equity, credit and fixed income markets could negatively affect issuers worldwide, including the Fund. There is the risk that you could lose all or a portion of your money on your investment in the Fund.

Active and Frequent Trading Risk

The Fund may engage in active and frequent trading, leading to increased portfolio turnover, higher transaction costs, and the possibility of increased net realized capital gains, including net short-term capital gains that will be taxable to shareholders as ordinary income when distributed to them. The Subadviser’s use of the Fund as an asset allocation tool for its other clients will increase the Fund’s portfolio turnover.

Convertible Bond Risk

Convertible bonds are hybrid securities that have characteristics of both bonds and common stocks and are subject to fixed income security risks and conversion value-related equity risk.

Counterparty Risk

The Fund may invest in financial instruments involving counterparties for the purpose of attempting to gain exposure to a particular group of securities or asset class without actually purchasing those securities or investments, or to hedge a position. These financial instruments may include swap agreements. The use of swap agreements involves risks that are different from those associated with ordinary portfolio securities transactions. For example, the Fund bears the risk of loss of the amount expected to be received under a swap agreement in the event of the default or bankruptcy of a swap agreement counterparty. Swap agreements also may be considered to be illiquid. In addition, the Fund may enter into swap agreements that involve a limited number of counterparties, which may increase the Fund’s exposure to counterparty credit risk. The Fund does not specifically limit its counterparty risk with respect to any single counterparty. Further, there is a risk that no suitable counterparties are willing to enter into, or continue to enter into, transactions with the Fund and, as a result, the Fund may not be able to achieve its investment objective.

Credit Risk

The Fund could lose money if the issuer or guarantor of a debt security goes bankrupt or is unable or unwilling to make interest payments and/or repay principal. The value of a debt security may decline if there are concerns about an issuer’s ability or willingness to make interest and or principal payments. Changes in an issuer’s financial strength or in an issuer’s or debt security’s credit rating also may affect a security’s value and thus have an impact on Fund performance. The Fund considers all derivatives and non-U.S. Treasury debt instruments as subject to credit risk.

Derivatives Risk

The Fund uses investment techniques, including investments in derivatives such as futures contracts, forward contracts, options and swaps, which may be considered aggressive. Investments in such derivatives are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time and may increase the volatility of the Fund. The use of derivatives may expose the Fund to additional risks that it would not be subject to if it invested directly in the securities underlying those derivatives, such as counterparty risk and the risk that the derivatives may become illiquid. The use of derivatives may result in larger losses or smaller gains than otherwise would be the case. In addition, the Fund’s investments in derivatives currently are subject to the following risks:

Futures and Forward Contracts There may be an imperfect correlation between the changes in market value of the securities held by the Fund and the prices of futures contracts. There may not be a liquid secondary market for the futures contracts. Forward currency transactions include the risks associated with fluctuations in currency.

Hedging RiskIf the Fund uses a hedging instrument at the wrong time or judges the market conditions incorrectly, the hedge might be unsuccessful, reduce the Fund’s investment return, or create a loss.

OptionsThere may be an imperfect correlation between the prices of options and movements in the price of the securities (or indices) hedged or used for cover which may cause a given hedge not to achieve its objective.

Swap AgreementsInterest rate swaps are subject to interest rate and credit risk. Total return swaps are subject to counterparty risk, which relate to credit risk of the counterparty and liquidity risk of the swaps themselves.

Equity Securities Risk

Investments in publicly issued equity securities and securities that provide exposure to equity securities, including common stocks, in general are subject to market risks that may cause their prices to fluctuate over time. Fluctuations in the value of equity securities in which the Fund invests will cause NAV of the Fund to fluctuate.

Foreign Securities Risk

Investments in foreign securities and securities that provide exposure to foreign securities involve greater risks than investing in domestic securities. As a result, the Fund’s returns and net asset values (“NAVs”) may be affected to a large degree by fluctuations in currency exchange rates, political, diplomatic or economic conditions and regulatory requirements in other countries. The laws and accounting, auditing, and financial reporting standards in foreign countries typically are not as strict as they are in the U.S., and there may be less public information available about foreign companies. These risks are more pronounced in emerging market countries, which are generally those with per capita income less than half that of the U.S.

Holding Cash Risk

The Fund may hold cash positions when the market is not producing returns greater than the short-term cash investments in which the Fund may invest. There is a risk that the sections of the market in which the Fund invests will begin to rise or fall rapidly and the Fund will not be able to sell stocks quickly enough to avoid losses, or reinvest its cash positions into areas of the advancing market quickly enough to capture the initial returns of changing market conditions.

Interest Rate Risk

The value of the Fund’s investment in fixed income securities will fall when interest rates rise. The effect of increased interest rates is more pronounced for any intermediate-term or longer-term fixed income obligations owned by the Fund.

Leverage Risk

The Fund may use leveraged investments that attempt to amplify the price movement of underlying securities or indices on a daily or other periodic basis, which may be considered aggressive. Such instruments may experience potentially dramatic price changes (losses), imperfect amplification and imperfect correlations between the price of the investment and the underlying security or index which will increase the volatility of the Fund and may involve a small investment of cash relative to the magnitude of the risk assumed. The use of leveraged instruments may currently expose the Fund to additional risks that it would not be subject to if it invested directly in the securities underlying those derivatives. The use of leveraged instruments may result in larger losses or smaller gains than otherwise would be the case.

Lower Quality Debt-Securities Risk

The Fund will invest a significant portion of its assets in securities rated below investment grade or “junk bonds.” Junk bonds may be sensitive to economic changes, political changes, or adverse developments specific to a company. These securities are considered speculative and generally involve greater risk of default or price changes than other types of fixed-income securities and the Fund’s performance may vary significantly as a result.

MLP Risk

Investments in MLPs involve risks different from those of investing in common stock including risks related to limited control and limited rights to vote on matters affecting the MLP, cash flow risks, dilution risks and risks related to the general partner’s limited call right. MLPs are generally considered interest-rate sensitive investments. During periods of interest rate volatility, these investments may not provide attractive returns. Many MLPs are focused on energy-related business and are subject to energy sector risks, such as decline in the price of petroleum.

Non-Diversification Risk

The Fund is non-diversified, which means it invests a high percentage of its assets in a limited number of securities. A non-diversified fund’s NAVs and total returns may fluctuate more or fall greater in times of weaker markets than a diversified mutual fund.

Preferred Stock Risk

The value of preferred stocks will fluctuate with changes in interest rates. Typically, a rise in interest rates causes a decline in the value of preferred stock. Preferred stocks are also subject to credit risk, which is the possibility that an issuer of preferred stock will fail to make its dividend payments.


A REIT’s performance depends on the types and locations of the rental properties it owns and on how well it manages those properties. Real estate values rise and fall in response to a variety of factors, including local, regional and national economic conditions, interest rates and tax considerations.

Risks of Investing in Other Investment Companies (including ETFs)

Investments in the securities of other investment companies, including ETFs, may involve duplication of advisory fees and certain other expenses. By investing in another investment company or ETF, the Fund becomes a shareholder thereof. As a result, Fund shareholders indirectly bear the Fund’s proportionate share of the fees and expenses paid by shareholders of the other investment company or ETF, in addition to the fees and expenses Fund shareholders indirectly bear in connection with the Fund’s own operations. If the other investment company or ETF fails to achieve its investment objective, the value of the Fund’s investment will decline, adversely affecting the Fund’s performance. In addition, closed-end investment company and ETF shares potentially may trade at a discount or a premium and are subject to brokerage and other trading costs, which could result in greater expenses to the Fund. Finally, because the value of other investment company or ETF shares depends on the demand in the market, the Adviser may not be able to liquidate the Fund’s holdings in those shares at the most optimal time, adversely affecting the Fund’s performance.

Shorting (Inverse) Risk

Short (inverse) positions are designed to profit from a decline in the price of particular securities, investments in securities or indices. The Fund will lose value if and when the instrument’s price rises – a result that is the opposite from traditional mutual funds. The Fund may also utilize inverse mutual funds and ETFs. These instruments seek to increase in value when their underlying securities or indices decline. Like leveraged investments, inverse positions may be considered aggressive. Inverse positions may also be leveraged. Such instruments may experience imperfect negative correlation between the price of the investment and the underlying security or index. The use of inverse instruments may expose the Fund to additional risks that it would not be subject to if it invested only in “long” positions.

Subadviser’s Investment Strategy Risk

While the Subadviser seeks to take advantage of investment opportunities for the Fund that will maximize its investment returns, there is no guarantee that such opportunities will ultimately benefit the Fund. The Subadviser will aggressively change the Fund’s portfolio in response to market conditions that are unpredictable and may expose the Fund to greater market risk than other mutual funds. There is no assurance that the Subadviser’s investment strategy will enable the Fund to achieve its investment objective.